Proposal for a Roman Alphabet

 

Symbol Phonetic description Example
VOWELS
a
Low central short vowel bar ‘talk (n.)’
, dan 
Low central long vowel bāsr ‘language’ 
, dāri 
High Front Short Vowel ime ‘his tooth’, bik 
, bis 
High Front Long Vowel dīmi ‘he came’, bīk 
Mid-high front short vowel

bes ‘why’

, men ‘who’ 

Mid-high front long vowel  mēn
, tēle ‘there’, bezēle ‘how’
Mid-high Back Round Short Vowel mos
, tol
, toq ‘mud’, thalo ‘seven’
Mid-high Back Round Long Vowel mōq ‘smile’, ōs ‘keep; Imperative’ 
High Back Round Short Vowel bur ‘hair’
, urk ‘wolf’  
, ume ‘their teech’, jumu ‘gown’
High Back Round Long Vowel būr
, mūl ‘her belly’, YB. ūll ‘belly’
Diphthongs
ai 
[ai] *(marginal) bai ‘he is’
, SB. hukaints ‘dogs’
au 
[au] *(marginal) SB. baum ‘mare’ (<Shina baum), qau 
CONSONANTS
Stops:
Voiceless Unaspirated Bilabial Stop pūn ‘jar’, paqo ‘(type of) bread’ 
ph 
Voiceless Aspirated Bilabial Stop phitti ‘(type of) bread; food’ (Dial. Var.), phallo 
, phulghu 
Voiced Bilabial Stop bar ‘talk (n.)’
, bāsr ‘language’
Voiceless Unaspirated Dental Stop tili ‘walnut’ (YB. telle
th 
Voiceless Aspirated Dental Stop tham ‘king’ 
Voiced Dental Stop dan ‘stone’ 
tt 
Voiceless Unaspirated Retroflex/Alveolar Stop ttam ‘close’  
, ttingan ‘egg’  
tth 
Voiceless Aspirated Retroflex/Alveolar Stop tthām ‘broom’, thang ‘push’ 
dd 
Voiced Retroflex/Alveolar Stop ddauddo ‘(kind of) soup’
ddaddang ‘drum’
Voiceless Unaspirated Velar Stop kāko ‘brother (honorific)’, kaman ‘a little’
kh 
Voiceless Aspirated Velar Stop khapun ‘spoon’, kharetti ‘basket’
Voiced Velar Stop gar ‘marriage’, YB. gamburi ‘flower’
Voiceless Unaspirated Uvular Stop qarqāmuts ‘hens’
, qaw ‘call (n.)’
qh, x  
Voiceless Aspirated Uvular Stop *(marginal) qhurma ‘date’ (SB. xurma) 
Affricates:
ch
Voiceless Unaspirated Palatal Affricate chagha ‘talk (n.)’ 
chh
Voiceless Aspirated Palatal Affricate chhap ‘meat’ 
Voiced Palatal Affricate jott ‘small’ 
ts 
Voiceless Unaspirated Dental Affricate tsatt ‘hole’
, tsaka ‘prop supporting a (wooden) beam’
tsh 
Voiceless Aspirated Dental Affricate tshil ‘water’ (YB. tshell) 
cr 
Voiceless Unaspirated Retroflex Affricate cruk ’embroidery; act of inserting (a needle)’ 
crh 
Voiceless Aspirated Retroflex Affricate crhin ‘sparror’ (YB. crhen) 
Fricatives:
Voiceless Labio-dental fricative *(marginal) faraq ‘difference’ (<Ur. farq) 
Voiced Labio-dental fricative *(marginal) valto ‘four’
, varaq ‘page’ (YB. waraq)
Voiceless Velar Fricative (varies with <qh> or <q> in HB)  xurma ‘dates’
, xurxamas ‘garbage’
, SB. rax ‘desire’ (HB. raq), YB. xat ‘mouth’
gh 
Voiced Velar Fricative ghashu ‘onion’
, haghur ‘horse’ 
Voiceless Glottal Fricative hun ‘wood’
, har ‘ox’ 
Voiceless Alveolar Fricative sar ‘thread’
, sa ‘sun’
Voiced Alveolar Fricative zizi ‘mother (address term)’
, bezēle ‘how’ 
sr 
Voiceless Retroflex Fricative sri ‘eat (Imperative)’, busray ‘cultivated land’
, sraqal ‘bee’ 
zr 
Voiced Retroflex Fricative zruk ‘kidney’, zrakun ‘donkey’
sh 
Voiceless Palatal Fricative shuqa ‘woollen coat’ (YB. shoqa), bush ‘cat’
,  shughulu ‘friend’
Nasals:
Bilabial Nasal mamu ‘milk’
,  muk ‘pearl’
Alveolar Nasal SB. nimas ‘story’
, dan ‘stone’, chuuni ‘wood’
ng 
Velar Nasal (occurs only in non-initial positions) shangali ‘(door) chain’
, thating ‘cold’, hing ‘door’, ingi ‘in-front’
ny 
Palatal Nasal *(marginal) YB. nyuh ~ nyu ‘elder’ 
, YB. minyas ‘story’
Approximants:
Voiced Lateral Liquid/Approximant leel ‘knowledge’
, tshil ‘water’,  baalt ‘apple’
lh 
Voiceless Lateral Liquid *(Yasin dialect) YB. baahlt ‘apple’
, YB. alhtan ‘two’
ll 
Velarized/Pharyngealized l “Dark l” *(Yasin) YB. mall ‘field’
, YB. llamaan ‘hem of shirt’, tshell ‘water’
Voiced Alveolar Liquid/Approximant yar ‘early’, varts ‘right’, SB. rax ‘desire’ 
rh 
Voiceless Alveolar Liquid/Approximant *(Yasin) YB. sharhphat ‘promptly’ 
Labio-velar Approximant *(marginal; may vary with <v> waw (etas) ‘shout’
, walimi ‘(it) fell (down)’
Palatal Glide ya ‘beer’, yar ‘early’
, yaare ‘below’
yr
Retroflex Glide yrayr ‘fast’
, YB. crayrayra ‘flying roach’